Natural products are being used as supplements by cancer patients, with or without the knowledge of their cancer treatment team. It is important to know which of these products show efficacy against diseases such as cancer, and which are ineffective. It is also essential to define the mechanism(s) of action of natural products, especially as relevant to cancer prevention or treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the use of one such natural product, a fermented wheat germ extract (Avemar), in the treatment regimen of cancer patients. Avemar has shown efficacy in both animal cancer models and human clinical trials with cancer patients, but more well-controlled trials in humans are necessary to assess the full potential of Avemar in cancer treatment. Avemar exerts its anticancer effect via an array of mechanisms, likely because there are many undefined components in this product that modulate numerous biological systems in cancer patients.