Fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE) is a multisubstance composition and, besides others, contains 2-methoxy benzoquinone and 2,6-dimethoxy benzoquinone which are likely to exert some of its biological effects. FWGE interferes with anaerobic glycolysis, pentose cycle and ribonucleotide reductase. It has significant antiproliferative effects and kills tumor cells by the induction of apoptosis via the caspase-poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase-pathway. FWGE interacts synergistically with a variety of different anticancer drugs and exerted antimetastatic properties in mouse models.
Promising cytotoxic activity profile of fermented wheat germ extract (Avemar®) in human cancer cell lines
Avemar is a fermented wheat germ extract with potent antimetastatic, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Chemically, it is a complex mixture of biologically active molecules including 2-methoxy-p-benzoquinone and 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone which were supposed to be responsible for the main biological properties of Avemar. Despite its ubiquitous use as nutrition supplement for cancer patients in some countries only limited data are available on its activity in human cancer or in combination with chemotherapy.
Adjuvant fermented wheat germ extract (Avemar) nutraceutical improves survival of high-risk skin melanoma patients: a randomized, pilot, phase II clinical study with a 7-year follow-up
OBJECTIVE: The fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE) nutraceutical (Avemar), manufactured under "good manufacturing practice" conditions and, fulfilling the self-affirmed "generally recognized as safe" status in the United States, has been approved as a "dietary food for special medical purposes for cancer patients" in Europe. In this paper, we report the adjuvant use of this nutraceutical in the treatment of high-risk skin melanoma patients.
An orally applicable fermentation product of wheat germ containing 0.04% substituted benzoquinone (MSC) has been invented by Hungarian chemists under the trade name of AVEMAR. Oral administration (3 g/kg body weight) of MSC enhances blastic transformation of splenic lymphocytes in mice. The same treatment shortens the survival time of skin grafts in a co-isogenic mouse skin transplantation model, pointing to the immune-reconstructive effect of MSC. A highly significant antimetastatic effect of MSC has been observed in three metastasis models (3LL-HH, B16, HCR-25).
Because of the observed immunostimulatory actions of a new fermented wheat germ extract--with standardized benzoquinone composition--we have investigated the eventual tumor growth- and metastasis-inhibiting effects of this preparation (Avemar) applied alone or in combination with vitamin C. Tumor models of different origin [a highly metastatic variant of the Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL-HH), B16 melanoma, a rat nephroblastoma (RWT-M) and a human colon carcinoma xenograft (HCR25)]--kept in artificially immunosuppressed mice were applied.